Cowpea is a widely grown legume used both as a food crop for humans and animals, and as a cover crop to improve soil quality and suppress weeds. The topsoil can either be ridged or left flat as seedbeds. Pod sucking bugs (Anoplocnemis curvipes): This pest attacks the pods of Cowpea. More than 11 million hectares are harvested annually worldwide, 97% is from Africa and Nigeria harvests 4.5 million hectares annually. Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. It’ is advised to store the seeds using Hermetic storage techniques, the store should be cleaned before loading in new seed and also the seeds should be sorted before storing. It is best to complete weeding by the 6th week, when the crop is already covering the ground. Crop Sci 25:740–742 CrossRef Google Scholar. The optimum temperature for growth and development is around 30 °C. Goa Nadora (Nadora Bardez-4): It is an indeterminate type of local cowpea selection with bold pods and high yield. If you ask a layman in Nigeria what cowpea is, you would have a hard time finding the right answer but once you say Beans, they know exactly what you mean. Proso millet is a warm-season grass crop capable of … It demands no irrigation and improves soil biotic life at the same time enriching the soil fertility. It is the crop which grows well in the warm season, temperate zones and humid tropic. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. Cowpea also complements a lot of cereal crops. Use of maize and cowpea on borders and wild brinjal and setaria as intercrop significantly helps in reducing the pest population. Alsondo-1: It is a determinate type of local cowpea selection with bold pods and high yield. Climatic condition requirements for cowpea– During growing season the temperature range for cowpea is between 280C-300C, its rainfall range is between 500-1200mm/year but some variety can thrive in areas with less than 500mm, in a nutshell this means cowpea will still survive in areas with low rainfall, although Cowpea requires enough moisture during the germinating period. It damages the plant by sucking sap from the under surface of young leaves and stem issues, and on the pods. Cowpeas require a long, warm growing season. The crop is prone to frost. Cowpea is affected by a variety of diseases – fungal, bacterial and viral disease and these affects cowpea in different ways at different stages of growth. Goa cowpea comes up well under sandy, sandy loam and alluvial soils. The two types of parasitic weeds that affect Cowpea are Striga and Alectra. A good crop of cowpea yields about 12-15 q of grain and 50-60 q of straw per hectare. Under ideal conditions the selection produces 12-13 long pods having a length of 24-25cm with 15-16 seeds per pod. Cowpea should be harvested when the pods are fully mature and dry, but these pods do not mature at the same time because of its staggered flowering period. It grows to a height of 55 cm with 3-4 primary branches under normal conditions. Colonization and control of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) by coccinellid predators in some resistant and susceptible cowpea varieties in Nigeria. Seed rate 35 - 40 kg/ha Time of planting Plant cowpea when there is sufficient soil moisture for germination. Cowpea is an herbaceous legume which grows annually in a warm climate with adequate rainfall. Yield. In both rural and urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, women who process cowpea into ‘akara’ and ‘moi moi’ sell these products in markets to earn regular income that helps them to feed their families and take care of the health and schooling of their children. According to the USDA food database, the leaves of the cowpea plant have the highest percentage of calories from protein among vegetarian foods. The crop will be ready for harvest in about 100–105 days under residual moisture situation. Connect to DesiMejwani! Cowpea is an annual plant with a large tap root and alternate trifoliate leaves with ovate leaflets. Afr J Biotechnol 7:3200–3210 Google Scholar. The plants are thought to be native to West Africa and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world. It is estimated that the annual world cowpea crop is about 12,5 million ha of which the total grain production (for food) is 3 million tons. The Cowpea is believed to have originated from West Africa and is cultivated by wild and cultivated species. The largest production of harvested dried seed is in Africa. Normally each pod will have 10 to 14 seeds with a test weight of 24 g for 100 seeds. Sometimes it is recommended, not to control the insect pest until it is considered large i.e.when its infestation is threatening the crop, but if its few they can be easily pulled out, burnt or fed to livestock. The yield increase may range from 20 to 35 %. Generally it should be done 40 - 45 days after sowing. Although, the crop comes up easily without much management, the productivity levels of the crop in general are very low. Cowpea has its root in Africa most especially South, West and East Africa but the name Cowpea probably emerged when it got to the United States of America and was used as an important feed for Cow. Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man. made. Cowpea fixes 45-150kg atmospheric nitrogen per ha by virtue of the biological nitrogen fixation through root nodules. Fusarium Wilt affects the leaves, it causes the lower leaves on one side of the plant to turn yellow, and plants infected are usually stunted and wilted. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. One ploughing followed by a harrowing ensures good weed control and a suitable seed bed. One can either use hand or combine harvester to harvest the crop. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Be sure to consult local information about impacts on cash crops. Cowpea should be intercropped or mixed cropped and also grown as a cover crop for average yields to be attained. In Nigeria it is simply known as ‘beans’. The plant grows up to 24 inches in height. Further, treat this seed with 375-500 g of Rhizobium before sowing specially in newly cultivated areas so as to ensure the benefit of biological nitrogen fixation. Know your Vegetables provides all you need to know about growing and cooking vegetables. Nigeria is the largest producer of Cowpea worldwide, as 58% of worldwide production comes from this country yet Nigeria is still the largest consumer of the crop. Its leaves are in alternate pattern and are trifoliate, the colour of the leaves is dark green and shape varies from linear-lanceolate to ovate. The move could potentially help reduce rural poverty and hunger. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Apply Rock Phosphate @ 250 kg / ha during sowing preferably in the planting lines to ensure better fertilizer use efficiency. The selection takes about 47 days to flower and matures in 90 days. Cowpea does not necessarily need nitrogen fertilizer, but in cases whereby the land has been used continuously for farming purposes, application of starter dose of Nitrogen up to 20kg/ha is good, especially when the organic matter is as low as 1%. In a situation where the soil is fragile and prone to erosion one can make use of Zero tillage (this a process whereby one uses herbicides to control weeds and maintains crop residue on the soil surface). Cowpea, lobia (Vigna unguiculata) Local names: Hindi: Lobia, Barbati, Alsande Marathi: Chavli Tamil: Karamani Telugu: Bobbarelu, Alasandulu Kannada: Avadai Malyalam: Kottapayaru. Francis Padi from the Savannah Agricultural Research Institute in Tamale, Ghana, writing in Crop Science, suggests other methods such as bulk breeding are more efficient in developing high-yield varieties. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. exposing the crop to moisture stress. Retrieved from " https://science … Control of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cowpea = आळसुंदे | aallsuNde cowpea = चवळी | chvllii. Cowpea is a multipurpose crop, grown for both humans and livestock. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown West and Central Africa are the leading cowpea producing regions in the world producing 64% of the estimated 3 million tons of cowpea seed. cover crop, cowpea also reduced weed pressure in California pepper pro-duction (209). Delay in sowing beyond January during rabi season, leads to delayed seedling emergence and seedling vigour. Cowpeas are one of the most important food legume crops in the semi-arid tropics that cover Asia, Africa, southern Europe and Central and South America. It is grown widely East and Central Africa, India, Asia, South and Central America. This grain is valued as staple food. Cowpea is one of the important legume crops not only in the Philippines but also in many countries of the world. The fertilizer requirement has to be decided based on soil test report after the harvest of paddy. It can be grown at wide range of temperatures from 25 -35°C. Also, seeds that will be planted must be sorted to make sure that they are free from insect damage that is it has no holes or wrinkles and are disease free. By initiating crop rotations with cowpea, sorghum yields have increased by approximately 30 percent and farmers make estimated savings of at least 30 percent of fertilisers’ costs. Cowpea. Cowpea. Southern peas is a commonly grown crop for growers in the southeastern part of Alabama. Nigeria Okays New GM Cowpea Variety – Why it Matters. How Cowpea is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Freezing also can help control the pest. Therefore, it is advisable to apply phosphorous in the form of rock phosphate or DAP and potash in the form of Muriate of Potash. Best yields are obtained in Thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) – This pest attacks the flowering stage of cowpea. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. The selection has a potential seed yield of 1290 kg/ha and a haulm yield upto 3t/ha. Foliar fertilization may be practiced with 2% DAP (200g dissolved in 10 litres of water) at flowering (40- 45 DAS and second spraying at pod initiation stage (70-75 DAS) which considerably increases the final pod yield and the test weight of harvested produce due to enhancement in the accumulation of photosynthates in reproductive parts. Goa local cowpea is preferred in many of the culinary preparations owing to its bold size with soft texture, better cooking quality, exquisite taste realizing high value from the produce. The selection has a potential seed yield upto 2000 kg/ha and a haulm yield of 4.30 t/ha. The crop also helps in smothering weeds (20-45%) when grown as intercrop in widely spaced crops. vigna unguiculata or cowpea relative crop. Cowpea is a useful, shade-tolerant cover crop, adding fertility to the soil. Four subspecies are recognised, of which three are cultivated Dhulape Utorda-3 (Goa Cowpea-3): It is also an indeterminate type of local cowpea selection with bold pods and high yield. The Cowpea is as a crop plant since Neolithic times. Meenakshi Sindhu, Anil Kumar, Honey Yadav, Darshna Chaudhary, Ranjana Jaiwal, Pawan K. Jaiwal, Current advances and future directions in genetic enhancement of a climate resilient food legume crop, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. The weed-suppressing activity of cowpea may be due, in part, to allelo-pathic compounds in the residue. It is grown extensively in the low lands and mid- altitude regions of Africa (particularly in the dry savanna) sometimes as sole crop but more often intercropped with … PDF | Cowpea production in Niger is constrained by biotic and abiotic factors that lead to lower yields and incomes for smallholder farmers. If the crop is raised for fodder purpose 250-350 q of green fodder is obtained per hectare. Cowpea is an annual herb which has a growth form that varies; it can be bushy, trailing, erect or climbing. Adesoye A, Machuka J, Togun A (2008) CRY 1AB transgenic cowpea obtained by nodal electroporation. All data and information provided on this site is for informational purposes only. It is adapted to warm summer climate and can be grown on all types of soils, ranging from sandy loams to heavy loams, if they are well drained. Treated seeds are then sown at 15- 20 cm distance in the furrows and immediately covered with soil and the field is planked to reduce moisture loss. November second fortnight to December first fortnight is ideal under Goa conditions, in light textured (sandy) soils under rice fallows. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia. PDF | Crop Diversification with Vegetable Cowpea for improving productivity, resource-use efficiency, soil and human health | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The vegetable grower has available all the information to successfully grow all vegetable crops, including site, soil, preparation seed … Cover crop mixes in Montana are increasingly becoming a tool for producers to improve soil health. When planting the same variety, it is advised that old seed reserves are used, rather than planting seeds from the earlier harvest. Heirloom Cowpea Varieties. Trap cropping with crops like tomato, and destroying them when the population is high. A good crop of cowpea yields about 12 - 15 q of grain and 50 - 60 q of straw per hectare. ), Plant Cell, Tissue and … Botanically, it is called Vigna unguiculata and is grown in the semi-arid tropics which cover Asia, Far East, Africa, Central and South America. The test weight of the selection is around 20-21g/100 seeds. Peas have many different pests such as aphids, thrips, leaffooted bugs, stink bugs, and various caterpillar species. Treat the seed with Trichoderma @10g/kg and with phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) culture @10-15g/kg seed before sowing. Quick green manure. Goa cowpea (locally called Alsando) is a bold seeded type with a viny growth producing higher biomass. The weeding should be done 2 weeks after germination, but if a pre-emergence herbicide (this a chemical used to subdue weed) is used, the first weeding should be 4 weeks after. List of various diseases cured by Cowpea. Maize . The crop is an important source of protein for over 200 million people. The P fertilizers were: ‘Kodjari’, a natural rock phosphate (RP) indigenous to Burkina Faso, 0–03% water-soluble, 25% P # O & content (Table 2) and ﬁnely ground to 100 l; and a commercial soluble single superphosphate (SSP) with 18% P # O &. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). It produces lengthy bold and fleshy pods. It is fairly tolerant to drought situations and suits for residual moisture situation in rice fallows. It is now a broadly adapted and highly variable crop, cultivated around the world primarily for seed, but also as a vegetable (for High temperatures can cause flower and pod drop, resulting in low grain yield. The type of control measure carried out, should be based on the nature of the weed. The Cowpeas can be cultivated in the tropics and subtropics. • In lowlands (wetlands), dig channels to drain or divert excessive water. ), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF FRENCH BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF MAIZE (Zea mays), SUSTAINABLE PEST MANAGEMENT IN GREEN HOUSES AND HIGH TUNNELS, How to make Your Own Animal Feeds (For Cattles and Sheep), Graphical Representation of Market Prices for September 2020, Apply chemicals (fungicide and herbicide), Topsoil that have been contaminated should be ploughed to reduce the incidence of pathogens. This is a major constraint to Cowpea production especially in West Africa, because their damage can be as high as 80-100% if not well managed. It has many common names including blackeyed pea, crowder pea, southern pea, lubia, niebe, coupe and frijole. This insect pest can be controlled by using insecticide or recommended chemicals. मराठी Marathi meaning of 'cowpea'. The selection takes 63-65 days for flowering with a total crop duration of 100 days. In Goa, due to high rainfall and presence of iron and aluminium in soils, the phosphorous gets fixed into the soil and is not available for plant for active root uptake. It contains 20%-25% of protein and 64% carbohydrate and has potential for poverty alleviation and malnutrition amongst the poor; also all parts of cowpea are useful, its vegetative part is good feed for cattle. (IPM CRSP, 2000). Cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus): It’s a serious Cowpea pest which affects it in during the storage period,. Farmers also need to make sure that the soil is suitable, in order for the plants to reach their full potential. Photo by FlowerPhotos/Universal Images Group via Getty Images Nigeria has given a new GM cowpea variety the go ahead. It causes a yield loss which varies from 30% to 70%,.They suck the sap from the green pods, causing them to shrivel and dry prematurely, which results in seed loss. Cowpea does well on any soil but the best soil for cowpea is well-drained Sandy loam soil or Sandy soil with a soil pH in the range of 6 to 7, although its sensitive to water-logging conditions. Take care to uproot the weeds fully and allow them to dry out. Burkina Faso scientists and farmers say their country has not abandoned crop biotechnology, despite challenges that prompted it to shelve genetically modified (GM) cotton in 2016. Developed and Maintained by e-portal team, ICAR-CCARI, Ela, Old Goa Root Rot is caused by fungi, due to either damp weather or too much of moisture in the soil. 80 kg N ha)1 following cowpea in rotation (Quin 1997). It shows considerable diversity in growth habit, flower and seed coat colour. Land Preparation. crop in Marathi translation and definition "crop", English-Marathi Dictionary online. Dr Singh’s more reliable varieties help ensure that this early-maturing “hungry season” crop provides income and sustenance in the period before cereal crops are harvested. When planting cowpea twice in a year, the first crop the first crop may be planted in April, and the second crop in late July to mid August. Crop Protection 14(1), 47-50. Cowpea is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae. Stem Rot is caused by Phytophthora vignae, it occurs mainly in wetter coastal and sub-coastal areas, also occurs on waterlogged soils. It is better to sow in plough-sole so as to place the seed in the moist zone at a depth of 5 cm. Read more. Isolation can be achieved by planting crops at different times to avoid an overlap of the flowering periods. The bottom line of Growing Cowpeas: Cowpea cultivation is profitable as this can even be used for any animal fodder as well as food grain requirement. • Deep well drained fertile loam soil is best for growing seed. when the rainfall is reduced. It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. This shows that all over Nigeria Cowpea is consumed in so many forms, thereby increasing the demand for cowpea. Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. INTRODUCTION . The cowpea crop can be used as green fodder for animal or can make organic manure when they are bearing flowers.